The Immortal Jellyfish: Nature’s Astonishing Secret to Defying Death

IAn organism that defies the fundamental concepts of life and death can be found in the enigmatic depths of the ocean, where the aquatic world reveals its mysteries: the immortal jellyfish. Although we usually think of jellyfish in terms of their tentacles filled with stings, the reality is much more interesting. The immortal jellyfish, formerly known as Turritopsis dohrnii, has captivated the interest of scientists and nature lovers alike by revealing the mysteries of its extraordinary life cycle.


The Standard Jellyfish Life Cycle:

To understand the exceptional nature of the immortal jellyfish, let’s first delve into the typical life cycle of jellyfish. Most jellyfish species undergo a process involving eggs, sperm, and a free-swimming larval form. The larvae eventually find a solid surface to attach themselves to, transforming into polyps that bud off and mature into young jellyfish, known as medusae.

The Immortal Phenomenon:

Contrary to the conventional life cycle, the hydrozoan Turritopsis dohrnii has unlocked the secret to immortality. Despite its minuscule size – roughly 4.5 millimeters – this jellyfish has the power to reverse its life cycle. When faced with physical damage or stressors like starvation, instead of succumbing to death, the medusa of Turritopsis dohrnii undergoes a remarkable transformation.

The Transdifferentiation Miracle:

This process, termed transdifferentiation, is an exceedingly rare phenomenon. The damaged or stressed medusa reabsorbs its tentacles, loses its ability to swim, and settles on the seafloor as a blob-like cyst. Over the next 24-36 hours, this blob undergoes transdifferentiation, transforming into a new polyp – the jellyfish’s earlier life stage. After maturation, new medusae bud off, essentially restarting the life cycle. This cycle can be repeated, suggesting that, in optimal conditions, these jellyfish might be immortal, never succumbing to the inevitability of old age.

The Marvel of Transdifferentiation:

Medusa cells and polyp cells are inherently different, each serving specific functions in their respective life stages. Transdifferentiation is the magic behind the immortal jellyfish’s extraordinary transformation. It reprograms the medusa’s specialized cells into specialized polyp cells, enabling the jellyfish to regenerate in an entirely different body plan. This ability to transform and rejuvenate allows them to produce new, genetically identical medusae, perpetuating their potential for immortality.

Discovery of the Immortal Jellyfish:

The immortal jellyfish, Turritopsis dohrnii, was first scientifically described in 1883. However, it wasn’t until the 1980s that the accidental discovery of their immortality astonished the scientific community. This small, unassuming creature has since become a symbol of nature’s ability to defy the conventional rules of life and death.

The immortal jellyfish, with its unparalleled ability to reverse its life cycle through transdifferentiation, stands as a testament to the incredible diversity and resilience of life in our oceans. As scientists continue to unravel the mysteries of Turritopsis dohrnii, the immortal jellyfish beckons us to reconsider the boundaries of what is possible in the natural world. In the depths of the ocean, a creature the size of a fingernail challenges our understanding of mortality, inviting us to marvel at the wonders that still lie undiscovered beneath the waves.


Al-Shahrour F., Díaz-Uriarte R., and Dopazo J., 2004. FatiGO: a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes. Bioinformatics 20: 578–580. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg455 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Ames C. L., Ryan J. F., Bely A. E., Cartwright P., and Collins A. G., 2016. A new transcriptome and transcriptome profiling of adult and larval tissue in the box jellyfish Alatina alata: an emerging model for studying venom, vision and sex. BMC genomics 17: 650. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Atkinson S. D., Bartholomew J. L., and Lotan T., 2018. Myxozoans: ancient metazoan parasites find a home in phylum Cnidaria. Zoology. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Ayala-Sumuano J.-T., Licea-Navarro A., Rudino-Pinera E., Rodríguez E., and Rodríguez-Almazán C., 2017. Sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of Anthopleura dowii Verrill (1869), from Mexico. Genomics data 11: 92–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Berking S., 1998. Hydrozoa metamorphosis and pattern formation. Curr. Top Dev. Biol. 38: 81–131. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5 thoughts on “The Immortal Jellyfish: Nature’s Astonishing Secret to Defying Death

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Follow by Email
Post on X